• Alfajri Alfajri Universitas Abdurrab, Indonesia
  • Herry Wahyudi 1Universitas Abdurrab, Indonesia
  • Azhari Setiawan Universitas Abdurrab, Indonesia
Keywords: The Post - ASEAN’s haze-free 2020, Indonesia’s Environmental Diplomacy, Riau


The ASEAN’s haze-free roadmap 2020 had the objective to eliminate the regional transboundary haze pollution. However, the 2019 haze recurrence which mostly originated from Indonesia’s land and forest had caused a diplomatic uproar between Indonesian and Malaysian top government officials. In addition, land and forest fires continued to occur in Indonesia over the last 5 years, albeit with a much lower severity compared to 2015 and did not gain global media attention as the haze rarely crossed out of Indonesia’s jurisdiction. This research applies a qualitative research method where the data collection is based on semi-structured interviews involving multi-stakeholders in Riau Province. Additional data are also collected from various journals, books, and news from media archival. The finding of this research discloses that several new policies and programs have been created and introduced since the last 5 years provided an early positive start, however, further implementation on the ground has been weak and complicated. Furthermore, previous, current, and future unchanged negligence behavior of government elites and public in Riau towards the land and forest fires has left the post – ASEAN’s haze-free roadmap 2020 with an equal or more amount of homework in the future. Thus, Indonesia needs to pay more attention and work in a sustainable manner on this issue, especially at the local level such as in Riau province and other land and forest fire-prone provinces in order to strengthen Indonesia's environmental diplomacy bargaining position in the globe and enlighten the current gloomy image in the future.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Adler-Nissen, R. 2015. “Relationalism or Why Diplomats Find International Relations Theory Strange” eds. OJ Sending, V Puliot, and IB Neumann. Diplomacy and the Making of World Politics: 208–84.

Adler-Nissen, R, and V Pouliot. 2014. “Power in Practice: Negotiating the International Intervention in Libya.” European Journal of International Relations 20(4): 889–911.

Alairus, Fadiyah. 2019. “Kalah 0-3 Dalam Kasus Karhutla, Jokowi Sebaiknya Patuhi Putusan MA - Tirto.ID.” (April 15, 2021).

Aldoe, B. 2019. “Petisi ·Gubernur Riau Syamsuar, Dukung KPK RI Segera Tertibkan Perusahaan Sawit Ilegal. ·Change.Org.”

Alfajri, Azhari Setiawan, and Herry Wahyudi. 2019. “Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) Perspective and Haze-Free ASEAN 2020: Evidences from Riau.” MJIR | Malaysian Journal of International Relations; Vol 7 No 1 (2019): MJIR | The Malaysian Journal of International Relations.

Amali, Zakki. 2020. “Jokowi Kalah 0-3 Lawan Rakyat Di Gugatan Karhutla, BPJS & Internet - Tirto.ID.” (April 15, 2021).

Andika, Rendhik. 2019. “Kepala BNPB: Karhutla 99 Persen Terjadi Akibat Ulah Manusia - ANTARA News.” Antara News. (April 15, 2021).

Anwar, Akhirul. 2019. “Jokowi Tegur Pemda Riau, Mendagri : Kepala Daerah Harus Punya Tanggung Jawab - Kabar24 Bisnis.Com.”, Antara News. (April 15, 2021).

Apriyono, Ahmad. 2019. “3 Jenis Kepala Daerah Dalam Menyikapi Kabut Asap Kebakaran Hutan - Regional Liputan6.Com.” Liputan 6. (April 15, 2021).

ASEAN. 2016. “Roadmap on ASEAN Cooperation towards Transboundary Haze Pollution Control with Means of Implementation.” ASEAN.

Aspinall, Edward, and Ward Berenschot. 2019. “Democracy for Sale: Elections, Clientelism, and the State in Indonesia.”

Benedick, R.E. 1999. “Diplomacy for the Environment.” Environmental Diplomacy.

Blaxekyer, L. 2016. “New Practices and Narrations of Environmental Diplomacy” eds. Sosa-Nunez and Atkins. Environment, Climate Change, and International Relations.

Bull, H., and A. Watson. 1984. “The Expansion of International Society.”

Buzan, Barry. 1991. “People, States, and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era.”

Buzan, Barry, and Ole Weaver. 2013. “Liberalism and Security: The Contradiction of the Liberal Leviathan.”

CNA. 2019. “‘Let the Data Speak for Itself’: Malaysian Minister on Transboundary Haze from Indonesia - CNA.” CNA. (April 15, 2021).

Cooper, A.F., J. Heine, and R. Thakur. 2013. “The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy.”

Diela, Tabita, Ed Davies, and Kim Coghill. 2019. “Indonesia President Makes Moratorium on Forest Clearance Permanent | Euronews.” Euro News. (April 15, 2021).

Falkner, R. 2008. “Business Power and Conflict in International Environmental Politics.”

Febrinastri, Fabiola. 2018. “KLHK Bentuk Kelompok Masyarakat Peduli Api Untuk Tangani Karhutla.” (April 15, 2021).

French, H. 1999. “How Can We Reconcile the Slow Pace of International Diplomacy with The Growing Urgency of Global Ecological Decline.” Environmental Diplomacy.

Gabrillin, Abba. 2015. “Jokowi Tekankan Pentingnya Pencegahan Kebakaran Hutan.” Kompas. (April 15, 2021).

Gorbiano, Marchio Irfan. 2019. “Jokowi to Visit Malaysia, Singapore as Haze Crisis Returns - World - The Jakarta Post.” The Jakarta Post. (April 15, 2021).

Gosetti, Sol. 2019. “President Jokowi Must Accept Fires Verdict and Show He Is Serious about Ending Forest Fires and People’s Suffering - Greenpeace Southeast Asia.” Greenpeace.

Di Gregorio, Monica et al. 2019. “Multi-Level Governance and Power in Climate Change Policy Networks.” Global Environmental Change 54: 64–77.

Gunawan, Arif. 2019. “Jokowi: Pembakaran Hutan Dan Lahan Di Riau Terorganisasi - Kabar24 Bisnis.Com.” (April 15, 2021).

Hidayat, Feriawan. 2019. “Kolaborasi, Kunci Utama Kabupaten Siak Cegah Karhutla.” Berita Satu. (April 15, 2021).

Hsu, Angel et al. 2020. “Beyond States: Harnessing Sub-National Actors for the Deep Decarbonisation of Cities, Regions, and Businesses.” Energy Research & Social Science 70: 101738.

Hunt, Luke. 2019. “Southeast Asia’s Deadly Annual Haze Is Back – The Diplomat.” The Diplomat.

Ihsanuddin. 2018. “Divonis Bersalah Atas Bencana Asap, Ini Komentar Presiden Jokowi.” Kompas. (April 15, 2021).

INDECS. 2021. “Persepsi Masyarakat Riau Tentang Masalah Sosial Dan Ekonomi.”

Jakob, Michael, Christian Flachsland, Jan Christoph Steckel, and Johannes Urpelainen. 2020. “Actors, Objectives, Context: A Framework of the Political Economy of Energy and Climate Policy Applied to India, Indonesia, and Vietnam.” Energy Research & Social Science 70: 101775.

Jong, H N. 2019. “Haze from Fires, Indonesia’s National ‘embarrassment,’’ Are Back.’” Mongabay.

Jong, Hans Nicholas. 2015. “RI Refuses Singapore’TMs Help in Forest Fires - National - The Jakarta Post.” The Jakarta Post.

Kaufmann, J. 1988. “Conference Diplomacy: An Introductory Analysis.”

Kementerian Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia. 2019. “Presiden Jokowi Tegaskan Pentingnya Upaya Pencegahan Karhutla | Sekretariat Negara.” Kementerian Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia. (April 15, 2021).

Kheng, Khor Swee. 2019. “RM1 Lawsuit against Indonesia for the Annual Haze.” Malaysia Kini. (April 15, 2021).

Kine, Phelim. 2020. “Indonesia’s New Omnibus Law Trades ‘Green Growth’’ for Environmental Ruin – The Diplomat.’” The Diplomat.

Kurniawansyah, Rudi. 2019. “Rakyat Dikepung Kabut Asap, Gubernur Riau Plesiran Ke Thailand.” Media Indonesia. (April 15, 2021).

Kusnadi. 2021. “InfoPublik - 13 Kebijakan Strategis Pemprov Riau Dalam Pengendalian Karhutla Tahun 2020 Akan Dilanjutkan.” Info (April 15, 2021).

Lay, Belmont. 2016. “Website to Thank Indonesian Vice-President Jusuf Kalla for 11 Months of Fresh Air Still up - Mothership.SG - News from Singapore, Asia and around the World.” Mothership. (April 15, 2021).

Lesmana, A.S., and R.R.N. Sari. 2019. “Satu Suara Dengan Wiranto, Mabes Polri: Langit Riau Biru.” Suara. wiranto-mabes-polri-langit-riau-biru.

Ling, Sharon. 2019. “Malaysia to Send Diplomatic Note to Indonesia over Haze | The Star.” The Star. (April 15, 2021).

Lumy, Friedrich Edward. 2020. “GoRiau - Ini 13 Kebijakan Strategis Pemprov Riau Antisipasi Karhutla.” Go Riau. (April 15, 2021).

Maharani, Esthi. 2013. “Presiden Minta Maaf Ke Singapura Dan Malaysia, Menteri Telan Ludah | Republika Online.” Republika. (April 15, 2021).

Maharani, Tsarina. 2020. “Faisal Basri: Oligarki Makin Mencengkeram Lewat UU Cipta Kerja.” Kompas. (April 15, 2021).

McBeth, John. 2013. “Don’t Let Haze Blacken Good Neighbourly Ties, Singapore News & Top Stories - The Straits Times.” The Straits Time. (April 15, 2021).

Meijaard, Erik. 2015. “Indonesia’s Fire Crisis — The Biggest Environmental Crime of the 21st Century.” Jakarta Globe. (April 15, 2021).

Miller, Michelle Ann, Carl Middleton, Jonathan Rigg, and David Taylor. 2020. “Hybrid Governance of Transboundary Commons: Insights from Southeast Asia.” Annals of the American Association of Geographers 110(1): 297–313.

Mufarida, Binti. 2019. “BNPB: Metode Pentahelix Langkah Optimal Pencegahan Karhutla.” (April 16, 2021).

Muhtadi, Burhanuddin. 2019. “Vote Buying in Indonesia: The Mechanics of Electoral Bribery.”

Mukaromah, Vina Fadhrotul. 2019. “Jokowi Lebih Menekankan Bidang Ekonomi, Bagaimana Bidang Lainnya 5 Tahun Ke Depan? Halaman All - Kompas.Com.” Kompas. (April 15, 2021).

Neumann, Iver B. 2002. “Returning Practice to the Linguistic Turn: The Case of Diplomacy.” Millennium 31(3): 627–51.

Nugraha, Ricky Mohammad, and Petir Garda Bhwana. 2019. “Pekanbaru Covered in Haze for the Past Month - News En.Tempo.Co.” Tempo. (April 16, 2021).

Pahlevi, Aseanty. 2018. “Jokowi Divonis Bersalah Di Kasus Karhutla, Walhi Beberkan Fakta - Bisnis Tempo.Co.” Tempo. (April 15, 2021).

Pisupati, B. 2015. “South-South Cooperation and Environmental Diplomacy: Options for India.”

Prakasa, Satria Unggul Wicaksana. 2021. “ECOCIDE CRIMES & OMNIBUS LAW: REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL LAW AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON INDONESIA LAW.” Jurnal Dinamika HAM (Journal of Human Rights) 12(2): 14.

Qin, S. 2019. “A Retreat From Multilateralism: Foreign Policy Restructuring Under Jokowi.” International Affairs. tlook/a-retreat-from-multilateralism-foreignpolicy-restructuring-under-jokowi (April 15, 2021).

Ratna. 2020. “Gubernur Riau Minta Penegak Hukum Berikan Sanksi Tegas Bagi Pembakar Hutan Dan Lahan.” Go Riau. (April 15, 2021).

Resosudarmo, Ida Aju Pradnja et al. 2019. “Indonesia’s Land Reform: Implications for Local Livelihoods and Climate Change.” Forest Policy and Economics 108: 101903.

Ristianto, Christoforus. 2015. “Walhi: Pemerintah Bukan Melaksanakan Putusan MA, Malah Ajukan PK...” Kompas. (April 15, 2021).

Robertua, Verdinand, and Lubendik Sigalingging. 2019. “INDONESIA ENVIRONMENTAL DIPLOMACY REFORMED: CASE STUDIES OF GREENING ASEAN WAY AND PEAT RESTORATION AGENCY.” Andalas Journal of International Studies (AJIS) 8(1): 1.

Rochni, Muhammad Nur. 2019. “Denda Kebakaran Rp3,15 T Baru Dibayar Rp78 M.” (April 15, 2021).

Rodzi, F. 2019. “Tolak Bantuan DKI Jakarta, HJ Azlaini: Tak Cocok Tanah Melayu Cara Angkuh Seperti Itu.” Riau Online.

Rosyidin, Mohamad. 2017. “Foreign Policy in Changing Global Politics: Indonesia’s Foreign Policy and the Quest for Major Power Status in the Asian Century.” South East Asia Research 25(2): 175–91.

Rusiana, Dita Angga. 2019. “Bahas Kebakaran Hutan Di Riau, Jokowi: Kita Lalai Lagi.” Sindonews. (April 15, 2021).

Safitri, Eva. 2019. “Mendagri Sentil Gubernur Riau Yang Ke LN Saat Karhutla - Halaman 2.” Detik News. (April 15, 2021).

Saputra, Andi. 2018. “Ini Alasan Jokowi Divonis Melawan Hukum Di Kasus Kebakaran Hutan.” Detik News. (April 15, 2021).

Situmorang, Mangadar. 2015. “Orientasi Kebijakan Politik Luar Negeri Indonesia 66 Di Bawah Pemerintahan Jokowi-JK.” Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional 11(1). (April 15, 2021).

Sizer, Nigel et al. 2014. “Preventing Forest Fires in Indonesia: Focus on Riau Province, Peatland, and Illegal Burning | World Resources Institute.” World Resources Institute. (April 15, 2021).

Suciati, Dessy, and Nur Aini. 2019. “Jokowi Jelaskan Pernyataannya Soal Kebakaran Hutan | Republika Online.” Republika. (April 15, 2021).

Suryadi. 2019. “Kabut Asap Makin Parah, Jokowi: Pencegahan Kebakaran Gambut Mutlak : Mongabay.Co.Id.” Mongabay. (April 15, 2021).

Syahrul, Jef. 2021. “Pj Sekda: KPK Minta Lengkapi Hingga Akhir Tahun - Cakaplah - Berpikir Berbuat Bercakap.” Cakaplah. (April 16, 2021).

Taher, Andrian Pratama. 2020. “Jokowi Sebut 99 Persen Karhutla Karena Ulah Manusia - Tirto.ID.” (April 15, 2021).

Tallo, Johan. 2019. “Polri: Kabut Asap Di Riau Klir, Langit Terlihat Biru - News Liputan6.Com.” Liputan 6. (April 15, 2021).

Tanjung, Chaidir Anwar. 2019a. “Gubernur Riau Akan Tertibkan Kebun Sawit Ilegal Seluas 1,2 Juta Ha.” Detik News. (April 15, 2021).

———. 2019b. “Pekanbaru Dikepung Asap, Wali Kota Masih Kunker Di Kanada.” Detik News. (April 15, 2021).

Tanjung, Hasbullah. 2019. “Tolak Bantuan Jakarta, Masril: Pemprov Riau Sombong Dan Gengsi.” Riau Online. (April 15, 2021).

Tanjung, Idon, and Aprillia Ika. 2019. “Gubernur Riau: Kabut Asap Karhutla Belum Mengkhawatirkan.” Kompas. (April 15, 2021).

Tehusijarana, Karina M. 2019. “‘The Main Thing Is Not the Process, but the Result’: Jokowi’s Full Inauguration Speech - National - The Jakarta Post.” The Jakarta Post.

The Straits Times. 2015. “Indonesia’s Vice-President Jusuf Kalla Criticises Neighbours for Grumbling about Haze, SE Asia News & Top Stories - The Straits Times.” The Straits Times. (April 15, 2021).

Umasugi, Ryana Aryadita, and Sandro Gatra. 2019. “Bantuan Ditolak Pemprov Riau, Anies: Kami Bersyukur Kalau Masalah Api Selesai.” Kompas. (April 15, 2021).

Varkkey, Helena. 2015. “The Haze Problem in Southeast Asia: Palm Oil and Patronage.” The Haze Problem in Southeast Asia: Palm Oil and Patronage: 1–227.

———. 2017. “In 3 Years We Would Have Solved This”: Jokowi, ASEAN And Transboundary Haze.” Jurnal Studi Pemerintahan; Vol 8, No 3 (2017): August 2017DO - 10.18196/jgp.2017.0049.277-295.

———. 2020. “Preventing Dispute over Haze Through Regional and Local Governance” ed. Mikio Oishi. Managing Conflicts in Globalizing ASEAN: 165–89.

Vogler, John. 2008. “Environmental Issues.” In The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, eds. John Baylis, Steve Smith, and Patricia Owens. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Warburton, Eve. 2016. “Jokowi and the New Developmentalism.” Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 52(3): 297–320.

Watson, A. 1982. Diplomacy: The Dialogue between States. London: Eyre Methuen.

Wiseman, G. 2011. “Bringing Diplomacy Back in: Time for Theory to Catch Up with Practice.” International Studies Review 13(1): 710–13.

Yulika, Nila Chrisna. 2019. “Kepala BNPB: 99 Persen Kebakaran Hutan Akibat Ulah Manusia - News Liputan6.Com.” Liputan 6. (April 15, 2021).

Zahid, Syed Jamal. 2019. “Dr M Says Baffled Jakarta Refusing Putrajaya’s Offer to Help with Haze Menace | Malaysia | Malay Mail.” Malay Mail.

How to Cite
Alfajri, A., Wahyudi, H. and Setiawan, A. (2021) “THE POST – ASEAN’S HAZE-FREE ROADMAP 2020 AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE IN INDONESIA’S ENVIRONMENTAL DIPLOMACY: RIAU’S PERSPECTIVE”, Berumpun: International Journal of Social, Politics, and Humanities, 4(1), pp. 15-39. doi: 10.33019/berumpun.v4i1.52.